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By Clifford Embleton (eds.)

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Emery et al. ( 1966) believe that it is a mid-oceanic ridge but, as shown by Mikhailov and Goncharov (1962), more reliable evidence exists to relate this structural feature to the geodynamic zone of the Hellenic deep-sea trench. In this case, the rise Principal Structural and Tectonic Features of the Ocean Floors around Europe can be thought of as being similar to marginal oceanic rises accompanying deep-sea trenches on the oceanic side. Using magnetic data, Malovitsky has indicated that the sedimentary cover is over l 0 km thick here.

I • 0 300km Fig. 4 Present-day vertical movements, based on tide gauge data, for north-west Europe. The isolines show the pattern of uplift or subsidence; the rates are given in millimetres per year [after West (1968)]. mantles. Red and yellow soils are typical, with sierozems in some places such as the Meseta. On calcareous rocks, terra rossa is developed. In the mountains, intensive accumulation of rock debris can be observed, partly cemented into breccias. In most dry areas experiencing occasional heavy thunderstorms during summer, caliche is formed.

The first two classifications represent the initial types which were subsequently converted into undulating and low-relief abyssal plains, as their depth of burial by sediments increased. The ocean floor relief is also characterized by numerous seamounts, as well as by conjugate narrow ridges and depressions reflecting the trends of fracture zones. Within the area shown by the International Geomorphological Map of Europe, the transition zone is represented only by the Mediterranean Sea, and the zone here is in the latest stage of development [see Leont'ev (1968a, 1975)].

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