By Benoit Dufort
Analog try out sign iteration utilizing Periodic SigmaDelta-Encoded Data Streams provides a brand new strategy to generate top of the range analog indications with low complexity. The concept of periodic SigmaDelta-encoded bitstreams is gifted alongside with a collection of empirical tables to aid decide upon the proper parameters of a bitstream. An optimization strategy is usually defined to assist pick out a section series with the specified attributes. a wide number of signs may be generated utilizing this strategy. Silicon implementation matters are mentioned with a particular emphasis on region overhead and straightforwardness of layout. One FPGA circuit and 3 diverse silicon implementations are offered in addition to experimental effects. it really is proven that straightforward designs are in a position to producing very excessive precision signals-on-chip. The approach is extra prolonged to multi-bit sign new release the place it truly is proven the way to raise the functionality of arbitrary waveform, turbines usually present in previous and present-day mixed-signal testers. No alterations are required, in basic terms the numbers in reminiscence are replaced. 3 varied calibration strategies to minimize the results of the AWG's non-linearities also are brought, including helping experimental facts.
the main target of this article is to explain an area-efficient procedure for analog sign iteration utilizing SigmaDelta-encoded facts circulate. The major features of the strategy are:
- excessive caliber signs (SFDR of a hundred and ten dB observed);
- huge number of signs generated;
- Bitstreams simply got with a quick optimization application;
- stable frequency answer, appropriate with coherent sampling;
- easy and quickly undefined implementation;
- in general electronic, other than an simply testable 1-bit DAC and probably a reconstruction filter out;
- reminiscence already to be had on-chip might be reused, lowering region overhead;
- Designs might be integrated into present CAD instruments;
- excessive frequency iteration.
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Additional info for Analog Test Signal Generation Using Periodic ΣΔ-Encoded Data Streams
Traditional stability limits on input amplitude can be exceeded, as long as a usable bit stream can be obtained. Amplitude resolution, on the other hand, depends on the number of bits N in the bit stream. :~ modulation. Since the STF of the modulator is equal to unity, the output signal amplitude is expected to be the same as the input signal amplitude. However, this is only true for infinite length bit streams. In the case of forced periodic streams, the amplitude resolution is affected by the number of bits N in the stream.
J0. :\ modulator setup shown in Fig. 3-10. :\ modulator and an output y(n) is produced. The input x(n) is assumed to be a floating-point number with very large precision and the output y(n) is limited to I-bit accuracy. The output y(n) is loaded into memory on the Ie and is used to produce the desired analog signal. The parameters that impact the quality of the signals generated are summarized in the following subsections. Figure 3-9: Approximating the infinite bit stream by periodically repeating a sample ,---------------------------------.
8 relative to the quantizer output, however only the noise power is shown. The graph in Figure 3-15(b) confirms our intuitive understanding that SFDR increases with the length of the bit stream. For a signal of amplitude A the SFDR can be written as (I_A22)maX[NTF/27tkINI _ A2 SFDR N k - 0, 1,2···2. OSR = 2- 2] N-I L . 41) INTF(/27t(kIN»1 2 k=O To calculate SNR, the signal power is divided by the total noise power inside the band according to - 4 0 . O=-=9:-:6:---f r I 1_ -50 - - - - - - - - - - -" - - - -70 ij!