By David G. Andrews
A quantitative creation to the Earth's surroundings for intermediate-advanced undergraduate and graduate scholars, with an emphasis on underlying actual rules. This version has been introduced thoroughly updated, and now features a new bankruptcy at the physics of weather swap which builds upon fabric brought in prior chapters, giving the scholar a huge figuring out of a few of the actual techniques underlying this most crucial and topical topic. not like many different books on atmospheric technological know-how, the emphasis is at the underlying physics. Atmospheric purposes are built in general within the difficulties given on the finish of every bankruptcy. The e-book is a vital source for all scholars of atmospheric physics as a part of an atmospheric technology, meteorology, physics, Earth technology, planetary technology, or utilized arithmetic direction.
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Extra info for An Introduction to Atmospheric Physics, Second Edition
By deﬁnition, the potential temperature of a mass of air is constant when the mass is subject to an adiabatic change; conversely, the potential temperature will change when the mass is subject to a non-adiabatic (or diabatic) change. As we shall see, the potential temperature is often a very useful concept in atmospheric thermodynamics and dynamics. 5 Parcel concepts We have just discussed adiabatic processes for a mass of air contained in a cylinder. To apply similar concepts to the atmosphere, we introduce the idea of an air parcel – a small mass of air that is imagined to be ‘marked’ in some way, so that its passage through the surrounding air (‘the environment’) can in principle be traced.
And liquid phases, with important chemical reactions that lead to the depletion of polar ozone (see Chapter 6). In the remainder of this chapter we consider the precipitation properties of water vapour; these result from the physical fact that, at terrestrial atmospheric temperatures and pressures, water undergoes phase changes between the vapour, liquid and solid states. We recall some basic thermodynamics of phase changes, focusing ﬁrst on the vapour– liquid phase transition at a plane interface.
Z0 Now assuming that zp → 0 as z → ∞ and p → 0,5 we get EP = ∞ p dz + E0 , E0 = z0 p0 . 33) z0 The boundary term E0 = 0 if the surface elevation z0 = 0, but in general we must allow for topography of varying height over the Earth’s surface, with z0 = 0. We now consider the internal energy of the air in the column. 2) has been used. 33). 34), ET = EP + EI = ∞ cv + Ra Ra p dz + E0 = z0 1 κ ∞ p dz + E0 , z0 since cv + Ra = cp = Ra /κ. 2). We can extend these ideas to the atmosphere as a whole by integrating the column values over the Earth’s surface area; for example, the global total energy is ET = ET dx dy, surface where x and y are horizontal coordinates.