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By B. Russell

Bertrand Russell is anxious during this e-book with the principles of data. He ways his topic via a dialogue of language, the relationships of fact to event and an research into how wisdom of the constitution of language is helping our realizing of the constitution of the world.

This version contains a new advent by means of Thomas Baldwin, Clare collage, Cambridge

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Extra resources for An Inquiry into Meaning and Truth

Sample text

O f the propositions that com e first in the epistem ological order to the occurrences w h ich , in some sense, are ou r grounds fo r accep tin g these propositions. T h e subject w ith w h ich I shall b e concerned is different from that discussed, fo r instance, in C arn ap ’s Logical Syntax o f Language, th o u gh at m an y points the discussions in that b o o k and others dealin g w ith sim ilar topics are relevant. I am con ­ cerned w ith w h at m akes em pirical propositions true, and w ith the definition o f “ truth” as applied to such propositions.

T h e developm ent o f lan­ gu ages o f high er ord er than the second is a m atter fo r the logician, since it raises n o n ew problem s as to the relation betw een sen­ tences and n on -lin gu istic occurrences. , w ords such as “ this” , “ I ” , “ n o w ” , w h ich h ave a m eaning relative to the speaker. T h e th eo ry o f p roper nam es w h ich is suggested is im portant i f true, in particular in connection w ith space and time. , w ith those propositions w hich m ost directly rep ort kn o w led ge derived fro m perception.

Neither o f these tw o facts alone is sufficient; it is their occurrence in quick succession that is asserted. Even this is not really sufficient: we have to believe that A 1 and A 2, Bi and B2, Q and C 2 are respectively appearances o f the same material objects, however these may be defined. I will ignore the fact that “ giving” involves intention; but even so the complications are alarming. A t first sight, it would seem that the minimum assertion involved must be something like this: “ A ls B „ C x are appearances o f three material objects at one time; A 2, B2, Q are appearances o f the ‘same* objects at a slightly later time; Q touches A x but not B x; Q touches B2 but not A*” .

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