By Rakesh Bajpai, Aleš Prokop, Mark Zappi
Over the previous century, nearly all of chemical and effort wishes of our commercial society has originated from fossilized carbon assets (coal, crude oil, usual gas). more and more, there's a awareness that usage of the fossilized carbon assets has opposed environmental results within the kind of expanding focus of greenhouse gases. we're additionally changing into conscious of the restricted nature of those assets. for this reason, massive efforts are being made to provide chemical substances and fuels from renewable assets similar to wooded area items, agricultural residues and plant items. All of those platforms catch solar power and atmospheric carbon dioxide as part of the common carbon cycle. critical study efforts also are underway, concentrating on cultivation of photosynthetic autotrophic microbes for the construction of biomass and lipids. during this class, algae seems to provide the main strength for taking pictures solar power and atmospheric carbon dioxide and supplying adequate amounts of biomass/lipids that could offset the fossilized carbon usage in a significant demeanour with out impacting meals output adversely. besides the fact that, numerous advances, either technologically in addition to politically, are wanted earlier than we will be able to become aware of its complete power. it's also transparent biorefinery procedure has to be undertaken in an effort to harvest renewable power and chemical substances from algae economically. This edited, multi-authored quantity on Algal Biorefineries will record new advances concerning algae-based technology.
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Extra resources for Algal Biorefineries: Volume 1: Cultivation of Cells and Products
1996). 2), light energy is used to convert organic waste streams (such as manure) into lipids, clean water and a residual biomass rich in protein and carbohydrates. The high oxygen content of the algal pond reduces the pathogen count of the waste stream (Mata-Alvarez et al. 2000), such that the residual biomass can be used directly as fertilizer (Mulbry et al. 2005), animal feed (Wilkie and Mulbry 2002), or further processed into sugars. 3) results in the net conversion of light energy and water into lipids.
Desalination 200:186–188 Dufreche ST (2008) Effect of phosphorous poisoning on the catalytic cracking of lipids for green diesel production. PhD Thesis. Chemical Engineering Department. Mississippi State University. May 2008 Faria GR, Paes CRPS, Castro JFA, Tinoco NAB, Barbarino E, Lourenco SO (2012) Effect of the availability of CO2 on growth, nutrient uptake, and chemical composition of the marine microalgae Chlorella sp. and Nannochloropsis oculata, two potentially useful strains for biofuel production.
M. Dragavon Fig. 2 Open-loop configuration (wastewater to biofuel, clean water and fertilizer) Fig. 1 Algal Biomass Yield ФDW Autotrophic batch algal cultures receive a continuous supply of photons as their source of energy. At low light regimes, most absorbed photons (> 80 %) are used for photochemical reactions (Baker 2008), which is reflected by an elevated quantum efficiency (in mole CO2 absorbed per Einstein). Assuming a nutrient-replete environment and low light, algal autotrophic growth in a batch reactor (such as a flask) is analogous to heterotrophic bacterial growth in fed-batch, for which energy is provided by a continuously fed organic carbon substrate (such as glucose).