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By Carolyn D Berdanier

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Ribulose-5-phosphate can be isomerized to ribose-5-phosphate or epimerized to xylulose-5phosphate. Xylulose and ribose-5-phosphate can reversibly form sedoheptulose-7-phosphate with the release of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. This, of course, will be recognized as a component of the glycolytic sequence. INTERCONVERSION OF DIETARY SUGARS Fructose In the course of digestion, the simple sugars glucose, fructose, and galactose are released from sucrose, maltose, and lactose. 3. Although two enzymes are available for the phosphorylation of fructose, one of these, fructokinase, is present only in the liver.

The enzymes that catalyze this desaturation are the Δ4, Δ5, and Δ6 desaturases. Again, desaturation is species specific. Mammals, for example, lack the ability to desaturate fatty acids in the n6 or n3 position. Only plants can do this, and even among plants, there are species differences. Cold-water plants can desaturate at the n3 position while land plants of warmer regions cannot. Cold-water plants are consumed by cold-water creatures in a food chain that includes fish as well as sea mammals.

Acetoacetyl CoA then condenses with another acetyl CoA to form HMG CoA. At last, the HMG CoA is cleaved into acetoacetic acid and acetyl CoA. The acetoacetic acid is reduced to β-hydroxybutyrate, and this reduction is dependent on the ratio of NAD+ to NADH++. The enzyme for this reduction, β-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, is tightly bound to the inner aspect of the mitochondrial membrane. Because of its high activity, the product (β-hydroxybutyrate) and substrate (acetoacetate) are in equilibrium.

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