By Michael Scott-Baumann
This publication explores and analyzes the historical past of clash within the center East from British rule within the early 20th century to the Iraq battle within the twenty-first century. The Arab-Israeli clash is the focus of this e-book however it additionally examines: Arab nationalism, particularly in Egypt and Syria; the Islamic revolution in Iran in 1979; the explanations and results of 3 wars regarding Iraq; the expansion of political Islam and Islamic fundamentalism within the center East.
Throughout the e-book, key dates, phrases and concerns are highlighted, and old interpretations of key debates are defined. precis diagrams are integrated to consolidate wisdom and realizing of the interval, and exam-style questions and information written by way of examiners give you the chance to advance examination abilities.
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Extra resources for Access to History. Crisis in the Middle East: Israel and the Arab States 1945-2007
Summary diagram: The war of 1948–9 First phase of war, May–June 1948 Second phase of war, July 1948 • Israelis resisted invasion from north • failed to defeat Arab Legion but gained control of west Jerusalem • Israelis re-equipped and reorganised during ceasefire • Israelis gained land in north and kept control of west Jerusalem Third phase of war, October 1948 to January 1949 • Israelis defeated Egyptians Results of war • • • • • • Israeli victory secured survival of new state and gained more land 700,000 Palestinian Arabs became refugees before and during the war Nakbah, or catastrophe, for Palestinians Armistices agreed but no peace treaty Jordan took control of West Bank Egypt took control of Gaza Key terms 4 | The Key Debate: How did Israel Win the War?
Some Egyptians, especially in the army, blamed the government for their defeat by the Israelis in 1949. Many of the younger army ofﬁcers accused the authorities of supplying them with poor equipment and incompetent commanders. Arab–Israeli Wars in 1956, 1967 and 1973 | 39 Key question Key term Key dates How was the Egyptian monarchy overthrown? King of Egypt overthrown by army ofﬁcers: 1952 Nasser became President of Egypt: 1954 Soviet Union The name by which communist Russia was known from 1917 to 1991.
It was also strategically important: it was the bridge between Africa and Asia. Even more importantly, the Suez Canal, which passed through its territory, was the main trading link between Europe and the East. It was a particularly vital link for Britain which had many military bases in the East and which depended on supplies of oil from the Persian Gulf (see the map on page 38). The Suez Canal had been built by the French and British in the 1880s. Or rather, the British and French used Egyptian labour to build it and thousands of Egyptians died in its construction.