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Download A Philosophical Companion to First-Order Logic by R. I. G. Hughes PDF

By R. I. G. Hughes

This quantity of modern writings, a few formerly unpublished, follows the series of a customary intermediate or upper-level common sense path and permits lecturers to counterpoint their shows of formal tools and effects with readings on corresponding questions in philosophical common sense.

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4 Let C be ~A, and we appear to have vindicated the equivalence between '~A v B' and 'If A, B'. Second, information that A and C are not both true seems to license the inference that if A is true, C is not. Again, the converse implication is uncontroversial. Let C be ~ B, and we appear to have vindicated the equivalence between '~(A & ~B)' and 'If A, B'. ) But alas, there are well known difficulties for the truth-functional account: ~A entails ~(A & ~B), for any B. B entails ~(A & ~B), for any A.

But, to repeat, we are in the business of interpreting 'If' for all conditionals. The contribution it makes to the (alleged) truth conditions of sentences in which it occurs makes no reference to my state of mind-though in special cases, the A or the B in 'If A, B' may do so. C 1 still stands, then. Now C 1 is incompatible with our positive account. Being certain that A and that B, a person must think A & B is just as likely as A. He is certain that B on the assumption that A is true. C 1 also conflicts with common sense.

F. Carlstrom and C. Hill's review of Adams (1975) in Philosophy of Science (1978). 2. I take this formulation from Mackie (1973), ch. 4. Mackie had the right idea, but did not have adequate arguments for his rejection of truthconditions. 30 Dorothy Edgington enough, it would seem, to be not worth denying. Now, from a truthconditional perspective, this double illocutionary force-an assumption, and an assertion within its scope-is eliminable-is reducible to, or equivalent to, a plain assertion. If conditionals have truthconditions, to assert 'If A, B' is to assert that its truth-conditions obtain.

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