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By A.H. Sturtevant

Within the small Fly Room at Columbia collage, T.H. Morgan and his scholars, A.H. Sturtevant, C.B. Bridges, and H.J. Muller, performed the paintings that laid the rules of contemporary, chromosomal genetics. the buzz of these occasions, whilst the total box of genetics was once being created, is captured during this publication, written in 1965 by means of a kind of current at first. His account is among the few authoritative, analytic works at the early historical past of genetics. This beautiful reprint is followed through an internet site, delivering full-text models of the main papers mentioned within the e-book, together with the world's first genetic map.

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Therefore the X was interpreted by McClung as producing maleness, and the supposed significance of the two kinds of sperm was the reverse of the true one. The correct relation was shown in 1905 for a beetle (Tenebrio) by Stevens; in this case there was also a Y present, smaller than the X, and she showed clearly that the female is XX, the male XY. This result was immediately confirmed by Wilson (also in 1905) for Hemiptera and was soon shown for Orthoptera, Diptera, Homoptera, Myriapoda, and, with less certainty, for various other kinds of animals.

His university training was largely in Germany, where he studied plant physiology with Sachs. In 1871 he became a lecturer at the University of Amsterdam and, from 1881 until his retirement, was a professor there. His early work was on local floras, the microorganisms in water supplies, and the turgor of plant cells. In the latter field, he carried out a beautiful series of quantitative studies of the effects of the concentrations of various salts on plasmolysis. These results were of importance in the development (by Arrhenius and van’t Hoff) of the ionic theory of the osmotic properties of solutions of electrolytes.

But it was known that other situations occur in which fertilized eggs give rise only to females, and unfertilized eggs give rise to either sex. In the group of aphids and phylloxerans, where this occurs, the chromosomes are not too difficult to study, and the work of von Baehr, Stevens, and Morgan soon showed that there were a series of unusual cytological phenomena that constituted a clear confirmation of the XY sex-determining mechanism (see Chapter 13). Sex-linkage was first reported by Doncaster and Raynor in 1906, in the currant moth (Abraxas); in 1908 Durham and Marryatt demonstrated it in canaries.

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